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Am J Ind Med. 2011 Jun;54(6):474-85. doi: 10.1002/ajim.20942. Epub 2011 Feb 28.

Hazardous materials on golf courses: experience and knowledge of golf course superintendents and grounds maintenance workers from seven states.

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  • 1Division of Public Health Sciences, Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27175-1084, USA.



The golf course industry has a growing Latino work force. Little occupational health research has addressed this work force. This article examines golf course superintendents' and Latino grounds maintenance workers' pesticide knowledge, beliefs, and safety training. In particular, it focuses on knowledge of and adherence to OSHA Right-to-Know regulations.


In person, in-depth interviews were conducted with 10 golf course superintendents in five states and with 16 Latino grounds maintenance workers in four states.


Few superintendents were in compliance with Right-to-Know regulations or did pesticide safety training with all of their workers. Few workers had any pesticide safety knowledge. Most safety training on golf courses was rudimentary and focused on machine safety, and was usually conducted in the off-season or on rainy days, not before workers were assigned tasks.


More Right-to-Know training is necessary for superintendents and grounds maintenance workers. Culturally and linguistically appropriate Spanish language materials need to be developed or made more widely available to train workers. Better enforcement of safety and training regulations is necessary.

Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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