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Eur J Pharmacol. 2011 May 1;658(1):16-21. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2011.02.009. Epub 2011 Feb 22.

Intraventricular administration of neuropeptide S has reward-like effects.

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  • 1Behavioral Neuroscience Research Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.


Neuropeptide S (NPS) is an endogenous brain peptide produced by neurons located in the lower brainstem, and functional studies suggest that NPS has arousing effects. Because its receptors are found in reward-associated regions throughout the brain, we evaluated whether intraventricular NPS injections elicit reward-related effects in rats. Rats increased lever presses that led to intraventricular administration of NPS (0.34-34 pmol per infusion) in a dose dependent manner, with a cue-assisted procedure. Cue-assisted self-administration of NPS was decreased by systemic administration of the dopamine receptor antagonist SCH 23390 (0.025 mg/kg, i.p.) or the hypocretin-1 (orexin-1) receptor antagonist SB 334867 (20 mg/kg, i.p.). In addition, intraventricular NPS injections (1000 pmol) induced conditioned place preference, whereas a lower dose (100 pmol) of NPS induced conditioned place aversion. Finally, NPS injections (100-1000 pmol) acutely facilitated locomotor activity, whereas repeated NPS injections did not lead to locomotor sensitization. Our data suggest that intraventricular NPS injections have reward-like effects in that NPS weakly facilitates seeking and induces positive reinforcement. These effects may depend on intact dopamine and hypocretin systems.

Published by Elsevier B.V.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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