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Clin Pharmacokinet. 2011 Apr;50(4):267-80. doi: 10.2165/11584560-000000000-00000.

Pharmacokinetic interaction of vicriviroc with other antiretroviral agents: results from a series of fixed-sequence and parallel-group clinical trials.

Author information

  • 1Schering-Plough, Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, New Jersey 07033, USA. claudia.kasserra@merck.com

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Vicriviroc is a next-generation antiretroviral compound that blocks HIV from entering uninfected cells by binding to the virus's cellular co-receptor chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5). A potent inhibitor of HIV infection of human cells both in vitro and in vivo, vicriviroc is in development for use in treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected individuals. These patients often receive antiretroviral therapy regimens that include a ritonavir-enhanced protease inhibitor. Such regimens have a high potential for drug-drug interactions because many of the antiretroviral agents inhibit or induce elements of drug elimination pathways, such as the hepatic cytochromes, which may alter drug concentrations and affect both safety and efficacy. The aim of this set of studies was to determine what, if any, dose adjustments or monitoring would be required to use vicriviroc in regimens containing the most common antiretroviral agents.

METHODS:

Drug-drug interactions between vicriviroc and 11 other antiretroviral compounds were investigated in fixed-sequence or parallel-group clinical trials lasting 12-35 days. Fixed-sequence studies were conducted with the protease inhibitors atazanavir, darunavir, fosamprenavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, saquinavir and tipranavir. In these studies vicriviroc was administered with ritonavir for a fixed duration, followed by administration of vicriviroc with ritonavir plus the protease inhibitor. Parallel-group studies conducted with lopinavir, zidovudine/lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate randomized subjects to receive vicriviroc with or without the study drug. All subjects enrolled in the studies were healthy male and female adults.

STATISTICAL METHODS:

The log-transformed data for vicriviroc primary pharmacokinetic parameters on appropriate days were statistically analysed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) model extracting the effects due to treatment. Steady state was evaluated by an ANOVA model on trough concentrations using day and subject as class variables.

RESULTS:

Vicriviroc exposure was not affected by the concurrently administered antiretroviral drugs in any clinically relevant manner, nor did vicriviroc have a clinically relevant effect on the exposure of other drugs. The drug combinations studied were safe and well tolerated, with most adverse events reported as mild to moderate. Aside from the known toxicities of the other antiretroviral drugs, no clinically relevant changes in blood chemistry, haematological parameters, ECGs or vital signs were associated with either vicriviroc or combination treatment.

CONCLUSIONS:

No dose modification or monitoring of vicriviroc concentrations is necessary when vicriviroc is co-administered with any of the antiretroviral agents reviewed here. The lack of drug-drug interactions suggests that it will be possible to add vicriviroc at the single clinically prescribed dose level to various background regimens that include a boosted protease inhibitor, with all other drugs also prescribed at their standard doses.

PMID:
21348539
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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