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Neurosurgery. 2011 Jul;69(1):164-72; discussion 172. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e31820f362a.

Biomechanical analysis of revision strategies for rod fracture in pedicle subtraction osteotomy.

Author information

  • 1Biomechanical Testing Facility, Orthopaedic Trauma Institute, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, California 94110, USA. jscheer@ucsd.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Pseudoarthrosis after pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) can require revision surgery due to posterior rod failure, and the stiffness of these revision constructs has not been quantified.

OBJECTIVE:

To compare the multidirectional bending stiffness of 7 revision strategies following rod failure.

METHODS:

Seven fresh-frozen human spines (T11-pelvis) were tested as follows: (1) posterior instrumentation from T12-S1 (excluding L3) with iliac fixation and L3 PSO; (2) inline connectors after rod breakage at L3 (L2 screws removed for access); (3) cross-links connecting rods above and below inline connectors; satellite rods (4) parallel, (5) 45° anterior, and (6) 45° posterior to original rods; 45° posterior with cross-links connecting (7) original and (8) satellite rods. Groups 3 to 8 were tested in random order. Nondestructive pure moment flexion-extension (FE), lateral bending (LB), and axial rotation (AR) tests were conducted to 7.5 Nm; 3D motion tracking monitored the primary range of motion.

RESULTS:

Addition of inline connectors alone restored stiffness in FE and LB (P > .05), but not in AR (P < .05). Satellite rods (groups 4 to 6) restored stiffness in FE and LB (P > .05), but not in AR (P < .05) and were not significantly different from one another (P > .05). The addition of cross-links (groups 3, 7, and 8) restored stiffness in all bending modes (P > .05) and were significantly greater than inline connectors alone in AR (P < .05).

CONCLUSION:

The results suggest that these revision strategies can restore stiffness without entire rod replacement. Failure of AR stiffness restoration can be mitigated with cross-links. The positioning of the satellite rods is not an important factor in strengthening the revision.

PMID:
21336218
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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