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J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011 Mar 1;56 Suppl 1:S7-13. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3182097426.

The BHIVES collaborative: organization and evaluation of a multisite demonstration of integrated buprenorphine/naloxone and HIV treatment.

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  • 1The New York Academy of Medicine, Center for Evaluation and Applied Research, New York, NY 10029, USA.


Substance abuse is associated with poor medical and quality-of-life outcomes among HIV-infected individuals. Although drug treatment may reduce these negative consequences, for many patients, options are limited. Buprenorphine/naloxone, an opioid agonist treatment that can be prescribed in the United States in office-based settings, can be used to expand treatment capacity and integrate substance abuse services into HIV care. Recognizing this potential, the US Health Resources and Services Administration funded the development and implementation of demonstration projects that integrated HIV care and buprenorphine/naloxone treatment at 10 sites across the country. An Evaluation and Technical Assistance Center provided programmatic and clinical support as well as oversight for an evaluation that examined the processes for and outcomes of integrated care. The evaluation included patient-level self-report and chart abstractions as well as provider and site level data collected through surveys and in-depth interviews. Although multisite demonstrations pose implementation and evaluation challenges, our experience demonstrates that these can, in part, be addressed through ongoing communication and technical assistance as well as a comprehensive evaluation design that incorporates multiple research methods and data sources. Although limitations to evaluation findings persist, they may be balanced by the scope and "real-world" context of the initiative.

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