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Int Immunopharmacol. 2011 Jul;11(7):842-47. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2011.01.017. Epub 2011 Feb 3.

Mobilized progenitor cells as a bridging therapy for radiation casualties: a brief review of tocopherol succinate-based approaches.

Author information

  • 1Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 8901 Wisconsin Ave, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603, USA. singh@afrri.usuhs.mil

Abstract

Nuclear detonation through either military or terrorist action would most likely lead to a mass-casualty scenario involving victims with varying degrees of exposure to ionizing radiation. As a result of radiation injury to the hematopoietic system, victims would suffer from a lack of red blood cells that deliver oxygen, immune cells that detect and eliminate infectious agents, and blood platelets that promote blood clot formation. In part, these symptoms are generally referred to as acute radiation syndrome (ARS). While some victims of moderate to high levels of radiation will be beyond saving, most will have received enough radiation to injure but not kill their bone marrow cells completely. Such people will recover from their injuries but face a 30-60day period during which they cannot fully fight infections and are prone to uncontrolled bleeding and anemia. To keep them alive until their hematopoietic system recovers, they must receive supportive care. Recently, using experimental animal models of ARS, transfusion of myeloid progenitor cells have been tried as a bridging therapy for radiation-exposed animals. Such cells have been shown to be effective in protecting animals exposed to lethal doses of radiation. These myeloid progenitors (along with of other hematopoietic progenitor cell types) can be mobilized out of the bone marrow into the blood for the reconstitution of hematopoiesis. This review discusses various approaches to the mobilization of progenitors using different mobilizing agents, and their utility as a bridging therapy for radiation casualties. We suggest that α-tocopherol succinate (TS) is an optimal mobilizing agent for progenitors. The extent of progenitor mobilization TS elicits in experimental mice is comparable to clinically used drugs such as recombinant granulocyte-colony stimulating factor rhG-CSF/Neupogen® and the bicyclam AMD3100 (plerixafor/Mozobil); therefore, we propose that TS be considered for further translational development and, ultimately for use in humans.

Published by Elsevier B.V.

PMID:
21296698
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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