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Cell. 2011 Feb 4;144(3):327-39. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2011.01.024.

Functional and mechanistic diversity of distal transcription enhancers.

Author information

  • 1Center for Pediatric Biomedical Research, Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester, NY 14627, USA. michael_bulger@urmc.rochester.edu

Erratum in

  • Cell. 2011 Mar 4;144(5):825.


Biological differences among metazoans and between cell types in a given organism arise in large part due to differences in gene expression patterns. Gene-distal enhancers are key contributors to these expression patterns, exhibiting both sequence diversity and cell type specificity. Studies of long-range interactions indicate that enhancers are often important determinants of nuclear organization, contributing to a general model for enhancer function that involves direct enhancer-promoter contact. However, mechanisms for enhancer function are emerging that do not fit solely within such a model, suggesting that enhancers as a class of DNA regulatory element may be functionally and mechanistically diverse.

Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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