Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Biol Psychol. 2011 Mar;86(3):370-8. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2011.01.009. Epub 2011 Feb 2.

Effects of competition on endurance performance and the underlying psychological and physiological mechanisms.

Author information

  • 1School of Sport & Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK.


Competition can influence performance, however, the underlying psychological and physiological mechanisms are poorly understood. To address this issue we tested mechanisms underlying the competition-performance relationship. Measures of anxiety, effort, enjoyment, autonomic activity and muscle activity were obtained from 94 participants during a handgrip endurance task completed in individual and competition conditions. Competition improved endurance performance, increased anxiety, effort, enjoyment, heart rate and muscle activity, and decreased heart rate variability, R-wave to pulse interval and pulse amplitude. Enjoyment fully mediated whereas effort and heart rate variability partially mediated the effects of competition on performance. In addition, anxiety moderated the competition-performance relationship; those with lower anxiety performed better in competition. We confirm that competition elicits effects on performance through psychological and physiological pathways, and identify mechanisms that underlie improved endurance performance during competition.

Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk