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Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011 Sep;21(9):699-705. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2010.03.006. Epub 2010 Nov 5.

Metabolic syndrome in subjects at high risk for type 2 diabetes: the genetic, physiopathology and evolution of type 2 diabetes (GENFIEV) study.

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  • 1Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Section of Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.



We evaluated the relationship between insulin resistance (IR) and insulin secretion with the metabolic syndrome (MS) in 885 subjects (377 men/508 women, age 49±11 years, BMI 29±5.2kgm(-2)) at risk of diabetes enrolled in the genetics, pathophysiology and evolution of type 2 diabetes (GENFIEV) study.


All subjects underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for the estimation of plasma levels of glucose and C-peptide, as well as fasting insulin and lipid profile. IR was arbitrarily defined as HOMA-IR value above the 75th centile of normal glucose tolerance (NGT) subjects. Overall MS prevalence (National Cholesterol Treatment Panel-Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATPIII) criteria) was 33%, 19% in subjects with NGT, 42% in impaired fasting glucose (IFG), 34% in impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), 74% in IFG+IGT subjects, and 56% in newly diagnosed diabetic patients. Prevalence was slightly higher with IDF criteria. MS prevalence was >50% in subjects with 2h glucose >7.8mmoll(-1), independently of fasting plasma glucose. IR prevalence was higher in subjects with MS than in those without (63% vs. 23%; p<0.0001) and increased from 54% to 73% and 88% in the presence of three, four or five traits, respectively. IR occurred in 42% of subjects with non-diabetic alterations of glucose homeostasis, being the highest in those with IFG+IGT (IFG+IGT 53%, IFG 45%, IGT 38%; p<0.0001). Individuals with MS were more IR irrespective of glucose tolerance (p<0.0001) with no difference in insulinogenic index. Hypertriglyceridaemia (OR: 3.38; Confidence Interval, CI: 2.294.99), abdominal obesity (3.26; CI: 2.18-4.89), hyperglycaemia (3.02; CI: 1.80-5.07) and hypertension (1.69; CI: 1.12-2.55) were all associated with IR.


These results show that in subjects with altered glucose tolerance (in particular IFG+IGT) MS prevalence is high and is generally associated to IR. Some combinations of traits of MS may significantly contribute to identify subjects with IR.

Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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