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J Cutan Med Surg. 2011 Jan-Feb;15(1):8-14.

Dermatologic manifestations of Sjögren syndrome.

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  • 1West Penn Allegheny Health System, Department of Medicine , Pittsburg, PA, USA.



Sjögren syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease that involves primarily the exocrine glands, resulting in their functional impairment. SS typically presents as dry eyes (xerophthalmia) and dry mouth (xerostomia). This process can manifest either as the independent phenomenon of primary SS or as secondary SS when found in the context of another autoimmune process, most commonly rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. Nearly half of the patients with SS develop cutaneous manifestations, which may include dry skin (xeroderma), palpable and nonpalpable purpura, and/or urticaria-like lesions. These cutaneous manifestations have been underemphasized because they are often overshadowed by the more prominent sicca symptoms. However, certain skin findings are of paramount clinical and prognostic importance as they confer an increased risk for the development of life-threatening conditions, including multisystem vasculitis and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.OBJECTIVE AND CONCLUSIONS:In this review, the cutaneous manifestations of primary SS are discussed, with an emphasis on those findings that portend an increased risk of mortality.

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