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J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2010 Dec;26(4):403-10.

Organophosphate resistance in Trinidad and Tobago strains of Aedes aegypti.

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  • 1The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago.


Aedes aegypti larvae from 8 sites in Trinidad and 1 in Tobago were assayed against temephos, malathion, and fenthion using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention time-mortality-based bioassay method. Resistance ratios (RRs) and resistance thresholds (RTs) for each insecticide were calculated in relation to the Caribbean Epidemiology Center reference susceptible strain. Results showed that the Haleland Park and Tobago strains were susceptible to fenthion and malathion, respectively (RRs < 1), while the San Fernando strain had a high RR (33.92) to malathion. All other strains had low-level resistance to fenthion and malathion. Resistance to temephos was more intense with 4 strains showing high-level resistance. The established RT was 60 min for fenthion, 75 min for bendiocarb, and 120 min for temephos and malathion. At the RTs, all Trinidad strains were resistant to temephos (11.50-74.50% mortality), 7 resistant to fenthion (21.25-78.75% mortality), and 5 resistant to malathion (56.25-77.50% mortality). The other strains were incipiently resistant (80-97% mortality). Despite the discrepancies between the RR levels and RT status, it is evident that the organophosphate insecticide resistance is prevalent in Trinidad and Tobago populations of Ae. aegypti. These results suggest that operational failure could soon occur and alternative strategies should be developed and implemented to reduce the probability of further selection pressure on resistant Ae. aegypti populations in Trinidad and Tobago.

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