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Cancer Causes Control. 2011 Apr;22(4):529-40. doi: 10.1007/s10552-011-9729-4. Epub 2011 Feb 1.

Estrogens in the breast tissue: a systematic review.

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  • 1Division of Public Health Sciences, Department of Surgery, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, Campus Box 8100, 660 S. Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.


The role of estrogens in breast carcinogenesis has been investigated at the level of whole body (plasma) and cell (molecular, receptors, etc.). Growing attention focused on the breast tissue being an intracrine organ, with potentially important local estrogen production in the breast. However, very little is known about the local breast tissue estrogen levels. Understanding the role of the tissue estrogens in breast carcinogenesis might open new avenues in breast cancer prevention. This systematic review summarizes published studies that measured local estrogen levels in the breast and offers suggestions for strategies to fill gaps in our existing scientific knowledge.

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