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J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011 Mar;127(3):640-6.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2010.12.1083. Epub 2011 Feb 1.

Sublingual immunotherapy for peanut allergy: clinical and immunologic evidence of desensitization.

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  • 1Department of Pediatrics, Division of Allergy and Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

There are no treatments currently available for peanut allergy. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is a novel approach to the treatment of peanut allergy.

OBJECTIVE:

We sought to investigate the safety, clinical effectiveness, and immunologic changes with SLIT in children with peanut allergy.

METHODS:

In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study subjects underwent 6 months of dose escalation and 6 months of maintenance dosing followed by a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge.

RESULTS:

Eighteen children aged 1 to 11 years completed 12 months of dosing and the food challenge. Dosing side effects were primarily oropharyngeal and uncommonly required treatment. During the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, the treatment group safely ingested 20 times more peanut protein than the placebo group (median, 1,710 vs 85 mg; P = .011). Mechanistic studies demonstrated a decrease in skin prick test wheal size (P = .020) and decreased basophil responsiveness after stimulation with 10(-2) μg/mL (P = .009) and 10(-3) μg/mL (P = .009) of peanut. Peanut-specific IgE levels increased over the initial 4 months (P = .002) and then steadily decreased over the remaining 8 months (P = .003), whereas peanut-specific IgG4 levels increased during the 12 months (P = .014). Lastly, IL-5 levels decreased after 12 months (P = .015). No statistically significant changes were found in IL-13 levels, the percentage of regulatory T cells, or IL-10 and IFN-γ production.

CONCLUSION:

Peanut SLIT is able to safely induce clinical desensitization in children with peanut allergy, with evidence of immunologic changes suggesting a significant change in the allergic response. Further study is required to determine whether continued peanut SLIT is able to induce long-term immune tolerance.

Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID:
21281959
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3052379
Free PMC Article
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