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J Vet Cardiol. 2011 Mar;13(1):21-30. doi: 10.1016/j.jvc.2010.10.003. Epub 2011 Feb 1.

Independent predictors of immediate and long-term results after pulmonary balloon valvuloplasty in dogs.

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  • 1Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche Veterinarie, Sezione di Clinica Medica Veterinaria, Facoltà di Medicina Veterinaria, Via Celoria 10, 20131 Milano, Italy.



Determine whether valve morphology, pulmonary annulus diameter, aortic/pulmonic annulus ratio, balloon-to-annulus ratio (BAR), pre-pulmonary balloon valvuloplasty (PBV), Doppler gradient, and residual Doppler gradient are independent predictors of immediate and long-term results after PBV in dogs as in humans.


Retrospective study. Medical records of dogs that underwent PBV, from January 1999 to December 2008 were reviewed. All dogs with pre- and immediate (24 h) post-PBV echocardiographic examination were included. 126 dogs were selected. Immediate outcome was optimal when the dog survived the PBV and Doppler gradient was ≤50 mmHg. Long-term outcome (1 year) was optimal when the dog survived at least 1-year follow-up without symptoms and Doppler gradient was ≤50 mmHg.


Only pre-PBV Doppler gradient was identified as a significant independent predictor of immediate results (P < 0.001; OR 0.97, CI 0.96-0.98). Pre-PBV Doppler gradient and residual Doppler gradient were the only independent predictors of long-term results (P = 0.036; OR 0.98, CI 0.96-0.99 and P = 0.005; OR 0.95, CI 0.92-0.98, respectively).


In dogs as in humans higher pre-PBV Doppler gradient is one of the most important independent predictor of suboptimal immediate and long-term results after PBV and must be considered before scheduling this procedure. Moreover higher valvar residual Doppler gradient is an important independent predictors of suboptimal long-term results.

Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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