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Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2011 Jul;12(4):445-8. doi: 10.1097/PCC.0b013e3182070f5d.

Prevention of neonatal late-onset sepsis associated with the removal of percutaneously inserted central venous catheters in preterm infants.

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  • 1Department of Neonatology, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, Utrecht, The Netherlands. M.A.C.Hemels@umcutrecht.nl

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Indwelling central venous catheters are the most important risk factors for the development of sepsis attributable to coagulase-negative staphylococci among preterm infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units. In addition, removal of a central venous catheter also may cause coagulase-negative staphylococci sepsis, which may be prevented by the short-term administration of an anti-staphylococcal agent during the procedure of removal. The administration of a specific anti-staphylococcal agent (cefazolin) was evaluated for the prevention of central venous catheter removal-associated coagulase-negative staphylococci sepsis.

DESIGN:

A prospective, open, randomized, controlled intervention study.

SETTING:

Twenty-eight-bed neonatal intensive care unit at a tertiary care children's hospital.

PATIENTS:

Eighty-eight preterm infants (gestational age <37 wks) admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit with indwelling percutaneously inserted central venous catheters.

INTERVENTION:

From April 2007 to January 2010, infants were randomized to receive two doses of cefazolin during removal of the percutaneously inserted central venous catheter (intervention group, n = 44) or no antimicrobial agent (control group, n = 44). Percutaneously inserted central venous catheter removal-associated sepsis was defined as sepsis occurring <48 hrs after removal of the percutaneously inserted central venous catheter.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:

Clinical characteristics and central venous catheter duration did not show differences between both groups. Five infants (11%) of the control group developed coagulase-negative staphylococci sepsis <48 hrs after removal of the percutaneously inserted central venous catheter compared to none (0%) in the intervention group (p = .021).

CONCLUSIONS:

Two doses of the anti-staphylococcal agent cefazolin during the procedure of removal of a percutaneously inserted central venous catheter were effective in the prevention of coagulase-negative staphylococci sepsis. It is recommended to include this regimen in the guidelines on management of central venous catheters in very-low-birth-weight infants.

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PMID:
21263371
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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