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J Biol Chem. 2011 Mar 18;286(11):8893-900. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.190017. Epub 2011 Jan 20.

Regulation of human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2) activity by electrophiles in vitro.

Author information

  • 1II. Medizinische Klinik, Molekulare Kardiologie, Universitätsmedizin der Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, 55101 Mainz, Germany.

Abstract

Recently, mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2) was reported to reduce ischemic damage in an experimental myocardial infarction model. ALDH-2 activity is redox-sensitive. Therefore, we here compared effects of various electrophiles (organic nitrates, reactive fatty acid metabolites, or oxidants) on the activity of ALDH-2 with special emphasis on organic nitrate-induced inactivation of the enzyme, the biochemical correlate of nitrate tolerance. Recombinant human ALDH-2 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli; activity was determined with an HPLC-based assay, and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species formation was determined by chemiluminescence, fluorescence, protein tyrosine nitration, and diaminonaphthalene nitrosation. The organic nitrate glyceryl trinitrate caused a severe concentration-dependent decrease in enzyme activity, whereas incubation with pentaerythritol tetranitrate had only minor effects. 4-Hydroxynonenal, an oxidized prostaglandin J(2), and 9- or 10-nitrooleate caused a significant inhibition of ALDH-2 activity, which was improved in the presence of Mg(2+) and Ca(2+). Hydrogen peroxide and NO generation caused only minor inhibition of ALDH-2 activity, whereas peroxynitrite generation or bolus additions lead to severe impairment of the enzymatic activity, which was prevented by the thioredoxin/thioredoxin reductase (Trx/TrxR) system. In the presence of glyceryl trinitrate and to a lesser extent pentaerythritol tetranitrate, ALDH-2 may be switched to a peroxynitrite synthase. Electrophiles of different nature potently regulate the enzymatic activity of ALDH-2 and thereby may influence the resistance to ischemic damage in response to myocardial infarction. The Trx/TrxR system may play an important role in this process because it not only prevents inhibition of ALDH-2 but is also inhibited by the ALDH-2 substrate 4-hydroxynonenal.

PMID:
21252222
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3058968
Free PMC Article

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