Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Urol. 2011 Mar;185(3):920-5. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2010.10.086. Epub 2011 Jan 19.

Kidney stones and subclinical atherosclerosis in young adults: the CARDIA study.

Author information

  • 1Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, USA.



Recent reports suggest that nephrolithiasis and atherosclerosis share a number of risk factors. To our knowledge there has been no previous examination of the relationship between kidney stones and subclinical atherosclerotic disease. We studied the relationship between nephrolithiasis, and carotid wall thickness and carotid stenosis assessed by B-mode ultrasound in the general community using data from the CARDIA study.


The CARDIA study is a United States, population based, observational study of 5,115 white and African-American men and women between the ages of 18 and 30 years at recruitment in 1985 to 1986.


By the year 20 examination 200 (3.9%) CARDIA participants had reported ever having kidney stones. Symptomatic kidney stones were associated with greater carotid wall thickness measured at the year 20 examination, particularly of the internal carotid/bulb region. Using a composite dichotomous end point of carotid stenosis and/or the upper quartile of internal carotid/bulb wall thickness, the association of kidney stones with carotid atherosclerosis was significant (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.3, p=0.01), even after adjusting for major atherosclerotic risk factors.


The association between a history of kidney stones and subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in young adults adds further support to the notion that nephrolithiasis and atherosclerosis share common systemic risk factors and/or pathophysiology.

Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk