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J Lipid Res. 2011 Apr;52(4):759-70. doi: 10.1194/jlr.M012203. Epub 2011 Jan 18.

Adipocyte expression of the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor involves gene regulation by PPARγ and histone acetylation.

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  • 1Department of Cellular and Physiological Sciences and the Diabetes Research Group, Life Sciences Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.


Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a gastrointestinal hormone that exerts insulinotropic and growth and survival effects on pancreatic β-cells. Additionally, there is increasing evidence supporting an important role for GIP in the regulation of adipocyte metabolism. In the current study we examined the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of GIP receptor (GIPR) expression in 3T3-L1 cells. GIP acted synergistically with insulin to increase neutral lipid accumulation during progression of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes to the adipocyte phenotype. Both GIPR protein and mRNA expression increased during 3T3-L1 cell differentiation, and this increase was associated with upregulation of nuclear levels of sterol response element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), as well as acetylation of histones H3/H4. The PPARγ receptor agonists LY171883 and rosiglitazone increased GIPR expression in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, whereas the antagonist GW9662 ablated expression. Additionally, both PPARγ and acetylated histones H3/H4 were shown to bind to a region of the GIPR promoter containing the peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE). Knockdown of PPARγ in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, using RNA interference, reduced GIPR expression, supporting a functional regulatory role. Taken together, these studies show that GIP and insulin act in a synergistic manner on 3T3-L1 cell development and that adipocyte GIPR expression is upregulated through a mechanism involving interactions between PPARγ and a GIPR promoter region containing an acetylated histone region.

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