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Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2011 Mar;16(1):183-202. doi: 10.1517/14728214.2011.528390. Epub 2011 Jan 19.

Topical immunomodulators for management of oral mucosal conditions, a systematic review; Part II: miscellaneous agents.

Author information

  • 1Hebrew University - Hadassah School of Dental Medicine, Department of Oral Medicine, POB 12272, Jerusalem 91120, Israel. eladhome@md.huiji.ac.il

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Topical immunomodulating preparations have utility in inflammatory/immune-mediated oral mucosal disease resistant to topical steroids, in immunologically mediated systemic disease with primary oral involvement or more severe lesions primarily involving the oral mucosa.

AREAS COVERED:

This paper is the second part of a systematic review of a variety of topical immunomodulators for management of immune/inflammatory oral mucosal conditions. The literature search revealed studies of azathioprine, benzydamine, GM-CSF and G-CSF, tetracyclines, retinoids, imiquimod, amlexanox, sirolimus and bacillus Calmette-Guerin polysaccharide nucleic acid. Weighted conclusions are provided for the topical use of each of the immunomodulators reviewed in the management of these oral diseases.

EXPERT OPINION:

Topical immunomodulators may be useful as second line treatment in several oral diseases, particularly oral lichen planus and recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Benzydamine was found to be preventive in radiotherapy-induced mucositis; however, it is unclear if this outcome is related to its immunomodulating effects or other mechanisms of action. Topical application of tetracyclines and retinoic acid also shows potential anti-inflammatory actions.

PMID:
21244328
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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