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J Immunol. 2011 Feb 15;186(4):2192-200. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1000475. Epub 2011 Jan 14.

Dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing nonintegrin expression on M2-polarized and tumor-associated macrophages is macrophage-CSF dependent and enhanced by tumor-derived IL-6 and IL-10.

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  • 1Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid, Spain.


Dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN; CD209) is a human pathogen-attachment C-type lectin with no obvious murine ortholog and for which ligation leads to enhanced anti-inflammatory cytokine release and altered proinflammatory cytokine production. Although induced by IL-4 in monocytes and considered as a DC marker, DC-SIGN expression on human APCs under homeostatic conditions is so far unexplained. We report in this study that M-CSF enhances DC-SIGN expression on in vitro derived anti-inflammatory macrophages and that M-CSF mediates the induction of DC-SIGN by fibroblast- and tumor cell-conditioned media. The M-CSF-inducible DC-SIGN expression along monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation is dependent on JNK and STAT3 activation, potentiated by STAT3-activating cytokines (IL-6, IL-10), and abrogated by the M1-polarizing cytokine GM-CSF. In pathological settings, DC-SIGN expression is detected in tumor tissues and on ex vivo-isolated CD14(+) CD163(+) IL-10-producing tumor-associated macrophages. Importantly, DC-SIGN Abs reduced the release of IL-10 from macrophages exposed to Lewis(x)-expressing SKBR3 tumor cells. These results indicate that DC-SIGN is expressed on both wound-healing (IL-4-dependent) and regulatory (M-CSF-dependent) alternative (M2) macrophages and that DC-SIGN expression on tumor-associated macrophages might help tumor progression by contributing to the maintenance of an immunosuppressive environment.

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