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Trends Ecol Evol. 1995 Jul;10(7):281-6.

Sex determination and population biology in the hymenoptera.

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  • 1James Cook is at the Dept of Biology and NERC Centre for Population Biology, Imperial College, Silwood Park, Ascot, UK SL5 7PY.


The Hymenoptera (ants, bees, wasps and sawflies) display a great variety of social systems and sex ratios and have played a key role in the development and testing of many evolutionary models. Traditionally, considerable emphasis was placed on the fact that hymenopterans have haploid males and diploid females but it is now clear that many species also regularly produce sterile, diploid males. Recent studies explore the diverse ways in which production of these diploid males influences selection on mating systems, sex ratios and social behaviour.


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