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Trends Ecol Evol. 1995 Feb;10(2):84-6. doi: 10.1016/S0169-5347(00)88988-0. Epub 2000 Aug 1.

Altruism among non-relatives: alternatives to the 'Prisoner's Dilemma'.

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  • 1Division of Biological Sciences and The Michigan Society of Fellows, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor MI, 48109, USA.


Triver's model of reciprocal altruism, and its descendants based on the Prisoner's Dilemma model, have dominated thinking about cooperation and altruism between non-relatives. However, there are three alternative models of altruism directed to non-relatives. These models, which are not based on the Prisoner's Dilemma, may explain a variety of phenomena, from allogrooming among impala to helping by non-relatives in cooperatively breeding birds and mammals.

Copyright © 1995. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


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