Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Int J Epidemiol. 2011 Aug;40(4):931-9. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyq256. Epub 2011 Jan 11.

HIV-malaria co-infection: effects of malaria on the prevalence of HIV in East sub-Saharan Africa.

Author information

  • 1Department of Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA.



To examine the association between malaria and HIV prevalence in East sub-Saharan Africa.


Using large nationally representative samples of 19,735 sexually active adults from the 2003-04 HIV/AIDS indicator surveys conducted in Kenya, Malawi and Tanzania, and the atlas malaria project, we analysed the relationship between malaria and HIV prevalence adjusting for important socioeconomic and biological cofactors.


In adjusted models, individuals who live in areas with high Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR > 0.42) had increased estimated odds of being HIV positive than individuals who live in areas with low P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR ≤ 0.10) [men: estimated odds ratio (OR) 2.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.62-3.12; women: estimated OR 2.44, 95% CI 1.85-3.21].


This is the first study to report malaria as a risk factor of concurrent HIV infection at the population level. According to our results, individuals who live in areas with high P. falciparum parasite rate have about twice the risk of being HIV positive compared with individuals who live in areas with low P. falciparum parasite rate. Our work emphasizes the need for field studies focused on quantifying the interaction among parasitic infections and risk of HIV infection, and studies to explore the impact of control interventions. Programmes focused on reducing malaria transmission will be important to address, especially in HIV-infected individuals.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk