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J Nutr Educ Behav. 2011 Jan-Feb;43(1):42-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jneb.2009.12.006.

Valid and reliable measures of cognitive behaviors toward fruits and vegetables for children aged 9 to 11 years.

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  • 1Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16801, USA. lohseb@psu.edu



To examine reliability of validity-tested instruments measuring fruit and vegetable (FV) preference and self-efficacy (SE) for and attitude (AT) toward cooking.


In Santa Fe, New Mexico, following cognitive interviews with 123 fourth- and fifth-graders, surveys were administered twice, less than 2 weeks apart, to students in 16 classrooms without intervening nutrition education. Results were assessed using Pearson correlation coefficient, Cronbach α, marginal homogeneity, Wilcoxon, and paired t tests.


Individual test-retest scores were significantly (P < .001) correlated (n = 344; 72.9% Hispanic); r = 0.80 (SE), 0.82 (AT), and 0.88 (FV). Cronbach α was ≥ 0.74 for all survey administrations. Classroom test-retest scores were significantly correlated (SE r = 0.66, AT r = 0.88, and FV r = 0.92). Self-efficacy and AT toward cooking were higher in girls (P < .001).


Validity-tested 8-item SE, 6-item AT, and 16-item FV surveys showed internal consistency and test-retest reliability and are suitable for impact assessment of cooking-based education interventions, specifically Cooking with Kids.

Copyright © 2011 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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