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Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2011 Jun;25(3):273-85. doi: 10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2010.10.009. Epub 2011 Jan 5.

Deep placentation.

Author information

  • 1Department of Woman & Child, University Hospital Leuven, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium. Robert.Pijnenborg@uzleuven.be

Abstract

Deep placentation in human pregnancy is realised by deep invasion of the placental bed by the extravillous trophoblast, involving the decidua and the inner (junctional zone) myometrium. Interstitial invasion of the stroma and endovascular trophoblast invasion of the spiral arteries both occur. Deep endovascular trophoblast invasion into the myometrial segments of spiral arteries is important for proper placental functioning. Before this extended vascular invasion begins, decidua-associated vascular remodelling, which includes swelling and disorganisation of the vascular smooth muscle, occurs during a period of rising placental oxygen. This early remodelling step may accommodate the progressively increasing maternal blood flow to the developing placenta. The subsequent trophoblast-associated remodelling step enhances and stabilises the widening of the vessels, whereas the vascular smooth muscle and elastic lamina are replaced by a fibrinoid matrix with embedded trophoblast. Defective deep remodelling contributes to placental malfunctioning in complications of pregnancy.

Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PMID:
21212025
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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