Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below

Contextually Induced Drug Seeking During Protracted Abstinence in Rats.


In: Buccafusco JJ, editor.


Methods of Behavior Analysis in Neuroscience. 2nd edition. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press/Taylor & Francis; 2009. Chapter 10.
Frontiers in Neuroscience.


Over the past half century great strides have been made in the development of useful animal models for the drug abuse triad—self-administration, physical or psychological dependence, and withdrawal. In fact, the compulsion to self-administer cocaine even in the face of adverse consequences is not limited to human beings [1,2]. Practically, it is not that difficult to detoxify a drug addict, but the problem lies in the propensity for former addicts to relapse to drug-seeking behavior, a risk factor that does not appear to decrease in potency over time. Recently there has been an increasing focus on the issue of protracted withdrawal. This feature of drug addiction mirrors classical conditioning in that certain contextual cues or environmental stimuli associated with drug taking can readily initiate a form of withdrawal or craving in addicts that often leads to renewed drug seeking and relapse (for review, see [3–5]). Indeed, both the rat and human share common triggers of relapse, including the drug of abuse itself, stress, and stimuli or the environment conditioned to the drug of abuse [6]. Rodent models of human drug craving and relapse have used paradigms of extinction and reinstatement. Such models have shown predictive validity by demonstrating that clinically effective anti-craving drugs reduce drug-seeking behavior as a component of the model [7].

Copyright © 2009, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons
    Write to the Help Desk