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J Biomed Opt. 2010 Nov-Dec;15(6):066022. doi: 10.1117/1.3509382.

Measuring hemodynamics in the developing heart tube with four-dimensional gated Doppler optical coherence tomography.

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  • 1Case Western Reserve University, Department of Pediatrics Cleveland, OH 44106, USA. mwj5@case.edu

Abstract

Hemodynamics is thought to play a major role in heart development, yet tools to quantitatively assess hemodynamics in the embryo are sorely lacking. The especially challenging analysis of hemodynamics in the early embryo requires new technology. Small changes in blood flow could indicate when anomalies are initiated even before structural changes can be detected. Furthermore, small changes in the early embryo that affect blood flow could lead to profound abnormalities at later stages. We present a demonstration of 4-D Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of structure and flow, and present several new hemodynamic measurements on embryonic avian hearts at early stages prior to the formation of the four chambers. Using 4-D data, pulsed Doppler measurements could accurately be attained in the inflow and outflow of the heart tube. Also, by employing an en-face slice from the 4-D Doppler image set, measurements of stroke volume and cardiac output are obtained without the need to determine absolute velocity. Finally, an image plane orthogonal to the blood flow is used to determine shear stress by calculating the velocity gradient normal to the endocardium. Hemodynamic measurements will be crucial to identifying genetic and environmental factors that lead to congenital heart defects.

PMID:
21198196
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3017576
Free PMC Article
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