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Heart. 2011 Feb;97(4):315-20. doi: 10.1136/hrt.2010.203224. Epub 2010 Dec 30.

Associations of vitamin D, parathyroid hormone and calcium with cardiovascular risk factors in US adolescents.

Author information

  • 1School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Canynge Hall, 39 Whatley Road, Bristol BS8 2PS, UK. dylan.williams@bristol.ac.uk

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To examine independent associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium with a range of cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents.

DESIGN:

Cross-sectional population-based study.

SETTING:

A nationally representative sample of the US adolescent population.

PARTICIPANTS:

Healthy adolescents (aged 12-19) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) between 2001 and 2006. Numbers varied between 740 and 5609 for given exposure and outcome associations.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), lipids (triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)), fasting insulin and glucose, postload glucose and glycohaemoglobin (HbA1c).

RESULTS:

25(OH)D was inversely associated with SBP (-0.068 standard deviations (SD), 95% CI -0.118 to -0.018), and positively associated with HDL-C (0.101; 0.040 to 0.162) and HbA1c (0.073; 0.021 to 0.125) after adjustment for gender, age, ethnicity, socioeconomic status and waist circumference. In adjusted models, PTH was inversely associated with triglycerides (-0.115; -0.188 to -0.042) and LDL-C (-0.133; -0.207 to -0.060). In adjusted models, calcium was positively associated with fasting insulin (0.110; 0.060 to 0.160), postload glucose (0.116; 0.000 to 0.232), HbA1c (0.079; 0.035 to 0.123), triglycerides (0.182; 0.122 to 0.242), HDL-C (0.049; 0.010 to 0.088) and LDL-C (0.137; 0.080 to 0.195). The associations of each exposure with risk factors remained after mutual adjustment for each other.

CONCLUSION:

Higher calcium levels might be a more important predictor of increased cardiovascular risk in adolescents than lower 25(OH)D levels or PTH levels, but the findings require replication in additional studies and examination in prospective studies.

PMID:
21193684
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3931194
Free PMC Article

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