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J Card Fail. 2011 Jan;17(1):17-23. doi: 10.1016/j.cardfail.2010.08.009.

Symptoms characteristic of heart failure among CKD patients without diagnosed heart failure.

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  • 1University of California, San Francisco, General Internal Medicine, San Francisco VA Medical Center, 4150 Clement St., 111A1, San Francisco, CA 94109, USA.



Epidemiological studies typically diagnose heart failure (HF) at the time of hospitalization, and have not evaluated the prevalence of HF symptoms in CKD patients without a prior HF diagnosis.


We modified the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) to detect and quantify symptoms characteristic of HF (dyspnea, edema, and fatigue) among 2883 chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients without diagnosed heart failure in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC). The KCCQ is a 23-item instrument that quantifies the impact of dyspnea, fatigue, and edema on physical, social, and emotional functions (scored 0 to 100). The median KCCQ score was 92, and 25% had KCCQ scores <75. Compared with cystatin C‑based estimated glomerular filtration rate >50 mL·min·1.73 m(2) (reference), estimated glomerular filtration rate 40 to 50, 30 to 40, and <30 were independently associated with lower KCCQ scores (<75); adjusted odds ratios and (95% CI): 1.38 (1.06-1.78), 1.39 (1.09-1.82), and 2.15 (1.54-3.00), respectively. Lower hemoglobin (Hb) levels also had independent associations with KCCQ <75: Hb >14 g/dL (reference), Hb 13 to 14 g/dL (1.03; 0.76-1.40), Hb 12 to 13 g/dL (1.41; 1.04-1.91), Hb 11 to 12 g/dL (1.56; 1.12-2.16); and Hb <1 g/dL (1.65; 1.15-2.37).


CKD patients without diagnosed HF have a substantial burden of symptoms characteristic of HF, particularly among those with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and hemoglobin levels.

Published by Elsevier Inc.

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