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J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011 Jan 4;57(1):76-85. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2010.08.620.

Cardiac effects of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-negative infants born to HIV-positive mothers: NHLBI CHAART-1 (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Cardiovascular Status of HAART Therapy in HIV-Exposed Infants and Children cohort study).

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  • 1Department of Pediatrics, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33101, USA. slipshultz@med.miami.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in utero on cardiac development and function in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative children.

BACKGROUND:

ART reduces vertical HIV transmission. Long-term cardiotoxicity after in utero exposure to ART is unknown in children but has occurred in young animals.

METHODS:

Using a prospective multisite cohort study design, echocardiograms taken between birth and 24 months were compared in 2 groups of HIV-negative infants of HIV-positive mothers: 136 infants exposed to ART (ART+) and 216 unexposed infants (ART-).

RESULTS:

Mean left ventricular (LV) mass z-scores were consistently lower in ART+ girls than in ART- girls: differences in mean z-scores were -0.46 at birth (p = 0.005), -1.02 at 6 months (p < 0.001), -0.74 at 12 months (p < 0.001), and -0.79 at 24 months (p < 0.001). Corresponding differences in z-scores for boys were smaller: 0.13 at 1 month (p = 0.42), -0.44 at 6 months (p = 0.01), -0.15 at 12 months (p = 0.37), and -0.21 at 24 months (p = 0.21). Septal wall thickness and LV dimension were smaller than expected in ART+ infants, but LV contractility was consistently about 1 SD higher at all ages (p < 0.001). In ART+ infants, LV fractional shortening was higher than in ART- infants; girls showed a greater difference.

CONCLUSIONS:

Fetal exposure to ART is associated with reduced LV mass, LV dimension, and septal wall thickness z-scores and increased LV fractional shortening and contractility up to age 2 years. These effects are more pronounced in girls than in boys. Fetal ART exposure may impair myocardial growth while improving depressed LV function.

Copyright © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID:
21185505
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3243620
Free PMC Article
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