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Ann Surg. 2011 Mar;253(3):431-41. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0b013e3181fcdb22.

Out-of-hospital hypertonic resuscitation after traumatic hypovolemic shock: a randomized, placebo controlled trial.

Collaborators (385)

George RL, Wang HE, Stephens SW, Acker JE, Minor ML, MacLennan PA, Caldwell S, Lai KR, Idris AH, Benitez F, Fowler R, Lemecha D, Minei J, Pepe P, Ramsay M, Simonson R, Wigginton J, Gandhi R, Smithson J, Griswell J, Climer D, Moffat M, Newman K, Owens P, Bennett A, Black R, Cason D, Craft B, Detamble L, Dykes R, Harvey T, Hewitt S, Isaacs M, Kay J, Kayea T, LaChance R, Lehman T, Mayer P, Metzger J, Miller D, Navarro K, Parker S, Pickard K, Porter W, Starling TJ, Tine T, Vinson C, Roach K, Abebefe D, Arze S, Black S, Bush M, Forman M, Goodloe J, Kelly R, Lachar G, Mangram A, Morales M, Thornton E, Wiebe R, Novonty P, Haynes L, Kerber R, Hata S, Atkins D, Rost C, Drum A, Fabian T, Croce M, Zarzaur B, Magnott L, Schroeppel T, Maish G, Bee T, Wilson S, Panzer-Baggett S, Waddle-Smith L, Aufderheide TP, Pirrallo RG, Brasel KJ, Winthrop AL, Klein JP, Brandt J, Bialkowski W, Noldin J, Kitscha DJ, Burja BJ, Bertelson H, von Briesen C, Sparks CW, Walsh P, Chianelli J, Forster R, Milbrath M, Pukansky L, Sternig K, Chin E, Frieberg N, Krueger K, Szewczuga D, Duerr T, Funk R, Jacobsen G, Spitzer J, Demien R, Martins J, Cohn J, Spahn RR, Jankowski M, James T, Wentlandt WE Jr, Berousek D, Satula BM, Behling JB, Redman DK, Hook S, Neargarder A, Singer J, Reminga T, Shepherd D, Holzhauer P, Rubin J, Skold C, Alvarez O, Harkins H, Barthell E, Haselow W, Yee A, Whitcomb J, Castro EE, Motarjeme S, Coogan P, Rader K, Glaspy J, Gerschke G, Croft H, Brin M, Wilson C, Johnson A, Kumprey W, Hoyt DB, Shaver J, Nastanski F, Donato B, Stratton S, Miller K, Grubb R, Herrera J, Grihalva L, Barrios C, Lekawa M, Cinat M, Malinoski D, Dolich M, Sauri H, Stiell I, Christenson J, Osmond M, Hameed M, Evans D, van Heest R, Vaillancourt C, Lefaivre P, Da Ponti MA, Banek J, Watpool I, McArdle T, Foxall J, Lewis MJ, Boychuk B, Pennington S, Dreyer J, Munkley D, Maloney J, Colella P, Affleck A, Waldbillig D, Bradford P, Reid A, Boyle K, Luinstra-Toohey L, Trickett J, Sykes N, Graham E, Ballah K, Hedges C, Andrusiek D, Bishop D, Straight R, Twaites B, Donn S, Callaway C, Tisherman S, Rittenberger J, Condle J, Kampmeyer M, Markham T, Morgan M, Sabol P, Sicchitano G, Sherry S, Shrader A, Stull G, Torres M, Groft W, McCaughan R, Rohrer R, Cole J, Fuchs D, Guyette F, Jenkins W, Roth R, Walker H, Corcos A, Doshi A, Ong A, Peitzman A, Schmidt T, Hedges JR, Schreiber MA, Newgard CD, Daya MR, Lowe RA, Griffiths DE, Zive DM, Monnig AW, Yekrang A, Brett J, Jui J, Sahni R, Warden CR, Freedman S, Muhr MD, Stouffer JA, Gorman K, Rosteck P, Newton C, Beeler T, Horn K, Koenig K, Lee J, Barnes R, Tucker H, Allen B, Bishop TJ, Hollingsworth M, Schult E, Sullivan S, Williams R, Dehart S, Stevens M, Hawks R, Glaser A, Rowan R, Chin J, Dargan S, Zoutendijk G, Koppenhafer C, Depuy C, Anderson J, Ramzy AI, Dean Gubler K, Wittwer LK, Karmy-Jones R, Hoskins G, Underwood S, Haun-Taylor D, Bryant E, Miller J, Barone B, Patterson K, Davis D, Coimbra R, Vilke G, Dunford J, Aker DK, McCallum-Brown L, Haynes B, Schwartz B, Sise M, Kennedy F, Simon F, Tominaga G, Steele J, Kudenchuk PJ, Bulger E, Copass M, Eisenberg MS, Rea TD, Klotz P, Larsen J, Helbock M, Slutsky A, Morrison LJ, Dorian P, Craig A, Baker A, Hutchison J, Rotstein O, Verbeek PR, MacDonald R, Black S, Rizoli S, Cheskes S, Brooks S, Zhan C, Simitciu M, Slater M, D'Souza P, Chung S, Perreira T, Cameron B, Austin D, Burse G, Frank J, Shield J, Locke J, Grant K, Welsford M, Moran P, Burgess R, Suthons R, MacDonald R, Darling S, Dewar S, Tyukodi S, Dodd T, Jones V, Arcand A, O'Connor C, Letovsky E, Dwosh H, Spence J, Choong K, Sne N, Segal S, Bojilov B, Wenkstern C, Watson J, Cicero L, Santos M, Geiteiro R, Farrell R, Rodgerson S, Li Y, Weisfeldt M, Hoyt DB, Holcomb JB, Sopko G, Egan D, Lathrop D, Mascette A, Nickens PD, Wu C, Mitchell P, Hoke T, van Belle G, Emerson S, Nichol G, May S, Bulger E, Powell J, Bardarson B, Gest A, Cook A, Meier E, Crouch L, Devlin S, Schroeder D, Sitlani C, Koprowicz K, Everson-Stewart S, Thomas L, Gabriel E, Wu K, Schmicker R, Ledingham RB, Moore R, Bergsten-Buret B, Shen C, Kirdpoo W, Berhorst J, Leonen A, Wang Y, Hallstrom A.

Author information

  • 1Department of Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.ebulger@u.washington.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To determine whether out-of-hospital administration of hypertonic fluids would improve survival after severe injury with hemorrhagic shock.

BACKGROUND:

Hypertonic fluids have potential benefit in the resuscitation of severely injured patients because of rapid restoration of tissue perfusion, with a smaller volume, and modulation of the inflammatory response, to reduce subsequent organ injury.

METHODS:

Multicenter, randomized, blinded clinical trial, May 2006 to August 2008, 114 emergency medical services agencies in North America within the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium.

INCLUSION CRITERIA:

injured patients, age ≥ 15 years with hypovolemic shock (systolic blood pressure ≤ 70 mm Hg or systolic blood pressure 71-90 mm Hg with heart rate ≥ 108 beats per minute). Initial resuscitation fluid, 250 mL of either 7.5% saline per 6% dextran 70 (hypertonic saline/dextran, HSD), 7.5% saline (hypertonic saline, HS), or 0.9% saline (normal saline, NS) administered by out-of-hospital providers. Primary outcome was 28-day survival. On the recommendation of the data and safety monitoring board, the study was stopped early (23% of proposed sample size) for futility and potential safety concern.

RESULTS:

 : A total of 853 treated patients were enrolled, among whom 62% were with blunt trauma, 38% with penetrating. There was no difference in 28-day survival-HSD: 74.5% (0.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], -7.5 to 7.8); HS: 73.0% (-1.4; 95% CI, -8.7-6.0); and NS: 74.4%, P = 0.91. There was a higher mortality for the postrandomization subgroup of patients who did not receive blood transfusions in the first 24 hours, who received hypertonic fluids compared to NS [28-day mortality-HSD: 10% (5.2; 95% CI, 0.4-10.1); HS: 12.2% (7.4; 95% CI, 2.5-12.2); and NS: 4.8%, P < 0.01].

CONCLUSION:

Among injured patients with hypovolemic shock, initial resuscitation fluid treatment with either HS or HSD compared with NS, did not result in superior 28-day survival. However, interpretation of these findings is limited by the early stopping of the trial.

CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:

Clinical Trials.gov, NCT00316017.

Comment in

PMID:
21178763
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3232054
Free PMC Article

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