Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Virulence. 2010 Sep-Oct;1(5):359-66. doi: 10.4161/viru.1.5.12795.

Candida infection and colonization among non-trauma emergency surgery patients.

Author information

  • 1Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.



Candida is a significant pathogen among critically ill patients. However, candidiasis among non-trauma emergency surgery (NTES) patients has not been previously investigated. Herein we describe the incidence of both colonization and infection from Candida and risk factors for invasive disease in this population.


For this retrospective single center study we included all NTES patients with ICU stay ≥4 days from May 1(st), 2002 to April 30(th), 2007. Patients were divided into 3 non-overlapping groups: 1) patients with Candida-infection, 2) patients with Candida colonization and 3) patients with negative Candida cultures. Groups were compared by univariate and multivariate analyses to identify significant risk factors for invasive candidiasis.


Of all 289 eligible patients, 63 (21.7%) fulfilled the criteria for Candida infection and 110 (38%) were included in the Candida colonization group. Interestingly, from the 63 patients with invasive candidiasis, 25 (39.7%) were infected by a non-albicans species. Upon multivariate analyses, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) (Odds Ratio [OR]: 2.34; 95%, Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.213-4.533, p = 0.0112), bacteremia (OR: 4.778; 95%CI: 1.519-15.029, p = 0.0075) and surgical complications (OR: 3.903; 95%CI: 1.335-11.412, p = 0.0129) were independent risk factors for the development of Candida infection. Candida infection and colonization were both found to correlate with approximately $40,000-100,000 mean additional costs). Interestingly, candidemia was associated with 63% all-cause mortality. For all other forms of candidiasis, mortality was not significantly different among groups.


We found that Candida infection is alarmingly high among NTES patients with prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Surgical complications and bacterial infections (VAP and bacteraemia) were significantly correlated with the development of candidiasis. Candidiasis reached a rate of 21.7/100 discharges, which is significantly higher than most established high-risk populations for candidiasis. Future studies should review the need for antifungal prophylaxis on this population.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk