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Toxicol Int. 2010 Jul;17(2):86-9. doi: 10.4103/0971-6580.72677.

Study of nephrotoxic potential of acetaminophen in birds.

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  • 1Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Veterinary College, KVAFSU, Hebbal, Bangalore, India.


The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of acetaminophen on kidneys of birds by comparison with diclofenac that is used as positive control. The birds of Group I served as negative control and received normal saline, whereas Group II birds received diclofenac injection (2.5 mg/kg IM) and Group III birds received acetaminophen injection (10 mg/kg IM) for a period of seven days daily. The birds treated with diclofenac showed severe clinical signs of toxicity accompanied with high mortality and significant increase (P<0.001) in serum creatinine and uric acid concentration. The creatinine and uric acid concentrations were consistent with gross and histopathological findings. The negative control and acetaminophen-treated groups showed no adverse clinical signs, serum creatinine and uric acid concentrations were normal, and no gross or histopathological changes in kidneys were observed. Thus, it was concluded that acetaminophen can be used for treatment in birds without any adverse effect on kidneys.


Acetaminophen; birds; diclofenac; nephrotoxicity

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