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Methods Mol Biol. 2011;689:205-14. doi: 10.1007/978-1-60761-950-5_12.

Imaging calcium sparks in cardiac myocytes.

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  • 1Department of Physiology and Biophysics, ICB, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. guatimosim@icb.ufmg.br

Abstract

Calcium ions play fundamental roles in many cellular processes in virtually all type of cells. The use of Ca(2+) sensitive fluorescent indicators has proven to be an indispensable tool for studying the spatio-temporal dynamics of intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)). With the aid of laser scanning confocal microscopy and new generation of Ca(2+) indicators, highly localized, short-lived Ca(2+) signals, namely Ca(2+) sparks, were revealed as elementary Ca(2+) release events during excitation-contraction coupling in cardiomyocytes. Since the discovery of Ca(2+) sparks in 1993, the demonstration of dynamic Ca(2+) micro-domains in living cardiomyocytes has revolutionized our understanding of Ca(2+)-mediated signal transduction in normal and diseased hearts. In this chapter, we have described a commonly used method for recording local and global Ca(2+) signals in cardiomyocytes using the fluorescent indicator fluo-4 acetoxymethyl (AM) and laser scanning confocal microscopy.

PMID:
21153794
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3233356
Free PMC Article
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