Display Settings:


Send to:

Choose Destination
We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Proteomics Clin Appl. 2010 Mar;4(3):285-94. doi: 10.1002/prca.200900130. Epub 2010 Feb 11.

Evaluation of human antibody responses to keyhole limpet hemocyanin on a carbohydrate microarray.

Author information

  • 1Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD, USA.



Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) is used as a vaccine adjuvant, as a carrier protein for small haptens, and as a treatment for bladder cancer. Immunization with KLH produces antibodies to tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs) in animals, and these antibodies have been postulated as the basis of efficacy for bladder cancer treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate antibody responses to KLH in humans.


A carbohydrate microarray was used to profile antibody responses in 14 individuals immunized with KLH plus alum adjuvant.


Eight out of fourteen individuals produced antibodies to at least one TACA. Increases to Lewis X, Lewis Y, GA1di, GM3, and sialyl Lewis A were observed in certain individuals, but, in general, antibody profiles were highly variable. Pre-immunization antibody levels to a subset of array antigens had a statistically significant correlation with the magnitude of the antibody response to KLH.


Antibodies to TACAs can be produced in humans, but antibody profiles differ considerably from person to person, which may contribute to variable clinical responses with KLH. Pre-treatment antibody levels to certain antigens may be useful for predicting which patients will respond favorably to KLH.

Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Images from this publication.See all images (4)Free text

Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk