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J Hum Hypertens. 2011 May;25(5):281-93. doi: 10.1038/jhh.2010.113. Epub 2010 Dec 2.

Increased nighttime blood pressure or nondipping profile for prediction of cardiovascular outcomes.

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  • 1First Cardiology Clinic, Hippokration Hospital, University of Athens, Athens, Greece.


At present, clinic blood pressure (BP) evaluation is being increasingly complemented by ambulatory BP measurements for the evaluation of haemodynamic patterns during daily activities and sleep. Nondipping pattern, a measure of decreased attenuation of nighttime over daytime BP, has been correlated with enhanced target organ damage and adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in different clinical settings beyond pure hypertensive cohorts. As the nondipping pattern is a derivative extract of both daytime and nighttime BP, it is yet questionable whether the crude estimate of nocturnal BP is superior to daytime BP and nondipping pattern in the prediction of subclinical damage and CV events. In this review, we aimed at comparing the CV predictive value of the nondipping pattern with that of nocturnal BP using cross-sectional and longitudinal data obtained from different cohort studies within the past 10 years. Our findings suggest that nocturnal BP including the phenotype of isolated nocturnal hypertension is better associated with CV target organ damage and 'hard end points' as compared with the nondipping pattern.

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