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J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2010 Dec;92(12):1622-7. doi: 10.1302/0301-620X.92B12.25486.

Coccydynia: a review of pathoanatomy, aetiology, treatment and outcome.

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  • 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 210 E. Gray Street, Suite 1003, Louisville, Kentucky 40202, USA.


Coccydynia is a painful disorder characterised by coccygeal pain which is typically exaggerated by pressure. It remains an unsolved mystery because of the perceived unpredictability of the origin of the pain, some psychological traits that may be associated with the disorder, the presence of diverse treatment options, and varied outcomes. A more detailed classification based on the aetiology and pathoanatomy of coccydynia helps to identify patients who may benefit from conservative and surgical management. This review focuses on the pathoanatomy, aetiology, clinical features, radiology, treatment and outcome of coccydynia.

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