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Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2011 Jan 12;366(1561):28-34. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2010.0281.

Single-gene mutations and healthy ageing in mammals.

Author information

  • Department of Physiology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, 801 North Rutledge Street, Room 4389, Springfield, IL 62794-9628, USA. abartke@siumed.edu

Abstract

Studies of the effects of single-gene mutations on longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster and Mus musculus identified homologous, highly conserved signalling pathways that influence ageing. In each of these very distantly related species, single mutations which lead-directly or indirectly-to reduced insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF) or insulin/IGF-like signalling (IIS) can produce significant increases in both average and maximal lifespan. In mice, most of the life-extending mutations described to date reduce somatotropic (growth hormone (GH) and IGF-1) signalling. The reported extensions of longevity are most robust in GH-deficient and GH-resistant mice, while suppression of somatotropic signalling 'downstream' of the GH receptor produces effects that are generally smaller and often limited to female animals. This could be due to GH influencing ageing by both IGF-1-mediated and IGF-1-independent mechanisms. In mutants that have been examined in some detail, increased longevity is associated with various indices of delayed ageing and extended 'healthspan'. The mechanisms that probably underlie the extension of both lifespan and healthspan of these animals include increased stress resistance, improved antioxidant defences, alterations in insulin signalling (e.g. hypoinsulinaemia combined with improved insulin sensitivity in some mutants and insulin resistance in others), a shift from pro- to anti-inflammatory profile of circulating adipokines, reduced mammalian target of rapamycin-mediated translation and altered mitochondrial function including greater utilization of lipids when compared with carbohydrates.

PMID:
21115527
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3001310
Free PMC Article
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