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Bone Marrow Transplant. 2011 Sep;46(9):1231-9. doi: 10.1038/bmt.2010.286. Epub 2010 Nov 29.

Impact of bloodstream infections on outcome and the influence of prophylactic oral antibiotic regimens in allogeneic hematopoietic SCT recipients.

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  • 1Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.


This study aimed to determine the impact of blood stream infections (BSIs) on outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (HSCT), and to examine the influence of old (non-levofloxacin-containing) and new (levofloxacin-based) prophylactic antibiotic protocols on the pattern of BSIs. We retrospectively enrolled 246 allogeneic HSCT recipients between January 1999 and June 2006, dividing patients into BSI (within 6 months post-HSCT, n=61) and non-BSI groups (n=185). We found that Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) predominated BSI pathogens (54%). Multivariate analyses showed that patients with a BSI, compared with those without, had a significantly greater 6-month mortality (hazard ratio, 1.75; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.82; P=0.021) and a significantly increased length of hospital (LOH) stay (70.8 vs 55.2 days, P=0.014). Moreover, recipients of old and new protocols did not have a significantly different 6-month mortality and time-to-occurrence of BSIs. However, there were significantly more resistant GNB to third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenem in recipients of levofloxacin-based prophylaxis. Our data suggest that BSIs occur substantially and impact negatively on the outcome and LOH stay after allogeneic HSCT despite antibiotic prophylaxis. Levofloxacin-based prophylaxis, albeit providing similar efficacy to non-levofloxacin-containing regimens, may be associated with increased antimicrobial resistance.

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