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Nat Rev Microbiol. 2011 Jan;9(1):9-14. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro2490. Epub 2010 Nov 29.

Chronic and acute infection of the gall bladder by Salmonella Typhi: understanding the carrier state.

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  • 1Center for Microbial Interface Biology and the Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology, and Medical Genetics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.


Despite major treatment and prevention efforts, millions of new typhoid infections occur worldwide each year. For a subset of infected individuals, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi colonizes the gall bladder and remains there long after symptoms subside, serving as a reservoir for the further spread of the disease. In this Progress article, we explore recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms by which Salmonella spp.--predominantly S. Typhi--colonize and persist in the human gall bladder.

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