Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2011 Apr 1;114(2-3):207-16. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2010.10.005. Epub 2010 Nov 24.

WISDM primary and secondary dependence motives: associations with self-monitored motives for smoking in two college samples.

Author information

  • 1Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Missouri, USA.


The Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM) assesses 13 domains of smoking motivation emphasized by diverse theoretical perspectives. Emerging findings support a distinction between four primary dependence motives (PDM) indexing core features of tobacco dependence and nine secondary dependence motives (SDM) indexing accessory features. The current study explored the validity of this distinction using data from two samples (Ns=50 and 88) of college smokers who self-monitored their reasons for smoking with electronic diaries. PDM scores were associated with diary endorsement of habitual or automatic motives for smoking individual cigarettes, which are conceptually consistent with the content of the PDM subscales. SDM did not clearly predict conceptually related self-monitored motives when tested alone. However, when these two correlated scale composites were co-entered, PDM predicted being a daily vs. nondaily smoker, being higher in nicotine dependence, and smoking individual cigarettes because of habit or automaticity. Conversely, after PDM-SDM co-entry, the unique variance in the SDM composite predicted the tendency to report smoking individual cigarettes for situational or instrumental motives (e.g., to control negative affect). The results suggest that the PDM composite may reflect core motivational features of nicotine dependence in these young smokers. The relative prominence of primary motives in advanced or dependent use may be even clearer when motives for smoking are assessed in real time rather than reported via questionnaire.

Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk