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Environ Health Perspect. 2011 Apr;119(4):519-26. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1002728. Epub 2010 Nov 24.

Para- and ortho-substitutions are key determinants of polybrominated diphenyl ether activity toward ryanodine receptors and neurotoxicity.

Author information

  • 1Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, California 95616, USA. npessah@ucdavis.edu

Erratum in

  • Environ Health Perspect. 2012 May;120(5):A189.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used flame retardants that bioaccumulate in human tissues. Their neurotoxicity involves dysregulation of calcium ion (Ca(2+))signaling; however, specific mechanisms have yet to be defined.

OBJECTIVE:

We aimed to define the structure-activity relationship (SAR) for PBDEs and their metabolites toward ryanodine receptors type 1 (RyR1) and type 2 (RyR2) and to determine whether it predicts neurotoxicity.

METHODS:

We analyzed [3H]ryanodine binding, microsomal Ca(2+) fluxes, cellular measurements of Ca(2+) homeostasis, and neurotoxicity to define mechanisms and specificity of PBDE-mediated Ca(2+) dysregulation.

RESULTS:

PBDEs possessing two ortho-bromine substituents and lacking at least one para-bromine substituent (e.g., BDE-49) activate RyR1 and RyR2 with greater efficacy than corresponding congeners with two para-bromine substitutions (e.g., BDE-47). Addition of a methoxy group in the free para position reduces the activity of parent PBDEs. The hydroxylated BDEs 6-OH-BDE-47 and 4´-OH-BDE-49 are biphasic RyR modulators. Pretreatment of HEK293 cells (derived from human embryonic kidney cells) expressing either RyR1 or RyR2 with BDE-49 (250 nM) sensitized Ca2+ flux triggered by RyR agonists, whereas BDE-47 (250 nM) had negligible activity. The divergent activity of BDE-49, BDE-47, and 6-OH-BDE-47 toward RyRs predicted neurotoxicity in cultures of cortical neurons.

CONCLUSIONS:

We found that PBDEs are potent modulators of RyR1 and RyR2. A stringent SAR at the ortho and para position determined whether a congener enhanced, inhibited, or exerted nonmonotonic actions toward RyRs. These results identify a convergent molecular target of PBDEs previously identified for noncoplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) that predicts their cellular neurotoxicity and therefore could be a useful tool in risk assessment of PBDEs and related compounds.

PMID:
21106467
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3080935
Free PMC Article
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