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Appl Opt. 1996 May 1;35(13):2274-84. doi: 10.1364/AO.35.002274.

Theory of fiber-optic, evanescent-wave spectroscopy and sensors.


A general theory for fiber-optic, evanescent-wave spectroscopy and sensors is presented for straight, uncladded, step-index, multimode fibers. A three-dimensional model is formulated within the framework of geometric optics. The model includes various launching conditions, input and output end-face Fresnel transmission losses, multiple Fresnel reflections, bulk absorption, and evanescent-wave absorption. An evanescent-wave sensor response is analyzed as a function of externally controlled parameters such as coupling angle, f number, fiber length, and diameter. Conclusions are drawn for several experimental apparatuses.

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