Format

Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Biol Chem. 2011 Jan 14;286(2):1114-24. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.178806. Epub 2010 Nov 11.

Autoxidative and cyclooxygenase-2 catalyzed transformation of the dietary chemopreventive agent curcumin.

Author information

  • 1Department of Pharmacology and Vanderbilt Institute of Chemical Biology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA.

Abstract

The efficacy of the diphenol curcumin as a cancer chemopreventive agent is limited by its chemical and metabolic instability. Non-enzymatic degradation has been described to yield vanillin, ferulic acid, and feruloylmethane through cleavage of the heptadienone chain connecting the phenolic rings. Here we provide evidence for an alternative mechanism, resulting in autoxidative cyclization of the heptadienone moiety as a major pathway of degradation. Autoxidative transformation of curcumin was pH-dependent with the highest rate at pH 8 (2.2 μM/min) and associated with stoichiometric uptake of O(2). Oxidation was also catalyzed by recombinant cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) (50 nm; 7.5 μM/min), and the rate was increased ≈10-fold by the addition of 300 μM H(2)O(2). The COX-2 catalyzed transformation was inhibited by acetaminophen but not indomethacin, suggesting catalysis occurred by the peroxidase activity. We propose a mechanism of enzymatic or autoxidative hydrogen abstraction from a phenolic hydroxyl to give a quinone methide and a delocalized radical in the heptadienone chain that undergoes 5-exo cyclization and oxygenation. Hydration of the quinone methide (measured by the incorporation of O-18 from H(2)(18)O) and rearrangement under loss of water gives the final dioxygenated bicyclopentadione product. When curcumin was added to RAW264.7 cells, the bicyclopentadione was increased 1.8-fold in cells activated by LPS; vanillin and other putative cleavage products were negligible. Oxidation to a reactive quinone methide is the mechanistic basis of many phenolic anti-cancer drugs. It is possible, therefore, that oxidative transformation of curcumin, a prominent but previously unrecognized reaction, contributes to its cancer chemopreventive activity.

PMID:
21071447
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3020718
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk