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Appl Opt. 1995 Aug 20;34(24):5413-21. doi: 10.1364/AO.34.005413.

Monte Carlo modeling of underwater-image formation: validity of the linear and small-angle approximations.


<p>A Monte Carlo model has been used to compute a set of point-spread functions (PSF's) and modulation transfer functions (MTF's) that determine underwater-image quality in a range of different environments. The results have been used to analyze the range of application under which a linear-approximation theory holds. Conclusions of the study are that the linear-approximation theory Seems to hold quite well over a broad range of applications. The ramifications of the Wells small-angle-scattering theory that predicts the PSF from a knowledge of the volume-scattering function (VSF) are also considered.</p><p>Discrepancies are noted between a predicted and a computationally obtained MTF; these discrepancies increase with range. Therefore, the results of the simulations indicate that the small-angle-scattering theory is more valid at a limited number of attenuation lengths. The results of the simulations indicate that the theory is valid to approximately three attenuation lengths.</p>

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