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Radiology. 2011 Jan;258(1):243-53. doi: 10.1148/radiol.10091808. Epub 2010 Nov 2.

The National Lung Screening Trial: overview and study design.

Collaborators (1431)

Berg CD, Aberle DR, Fagerstrom RM, Gatsonis C, Gareen IF, Marcus PM, Cagnon C, Cody D, Fletcher G, Flynn MJ, Judy PF, Kruger R, Larke FJ, McNitt-Gray M, Payne T, Seibert JA, Wu X, Abbott G, Aberle DR, Amorosa JK, Barr RG, Black WC, Boiselle PM, Chiles C, Clark R, Coppage L, Falk R, Fishman EK, Gemmel D, Goldin JG, Goodman E, Hart EM, Hazelton T, Johnson E, Judy PF, Kazerooni E, McComb B, McLennan G, Munden RF, Ravenel J, Sullivan M, Swensen SJ, Torigia DA, Vydareny KH, Worrell JA, Balkin P, Church TR, Fouad M, Freedman MT, Garg K, Gelmann EP, Gierada DS, Hocking W, Inampudi S, Isaacs C, Kvale P, Lynch D, Mann H, Manor W, Nath H, Reding D, Spizarny DL, Strollo DC, Waltz J, Chen MH, Duan F, Izmirilian G, Pinsky P, Prorok PC, Miller AB, Edelman MJ, Evans WK, Fontana RS, Machtay M, Gierada DS, Clark KW, Clingan KL, Fagerstrom RM, Fletcher G, Flynn MJ, Ford MB, Garg K, Larke FJ, Márquez G, Moore SM, Nath H, Ohan P, Payne TJ, Peace S, Rosenbaum JL, Strollo DC, Wu X, Aberle D, Barr R, Black W, Goldin J, Torigian D, Vydareny K, Worrell J, Young RC, Alberts D, DeMets D, Greenwald P, Jacobs P, McLoud TC, Naidich DP, Tatum J, Sausville EA, Burke W, Colice G, Edwards B, Emerson S, Fletcher J, Green S, Harris R, Klein JS, Korn EL, Mayer R, Selby JV, Sturges DW, Turnbull BW, Watson TJ, Aberle D, Baylin S, Caporaso N, Dennis P, Dubinett S, Franklin W, Gatsonis C, Grizzle W, Hirsch F, Massion P, McKeeta-Probeck K, Minna J, Patz E, Spitz M, Berg CD, Prorok PC, Fagerstrom RM, Marcus PM, Corle D, Hu P, Izmirlian G, Pinsky P, Márquez G, Sullivan D, Gaegler J, Gohagan JK, Hoffman S, Jackson C, Lange E, Papadopoulos E, Galen B, Jaffe C, Kramer BS, Aberle D, Gatsonis C, Gareen I, Schnall M, Apgar C, Boyle A, Caldwell T, Fredericks N, Harbison D, Hartfeil D, Jones S, King S, Mahon I, Medina R, Masiejczyk C, Zamora P, Brastater H, Iyer V, George J, Gopalakrishnan D, Blair P, Bradley M, Crozier C, Oh M, Spiese N, Steward C, Kelly-Truran M, Thompson T, Cunningham E, Levering A, McMurtrie K, Nahill M, Snowden S, Smith K, Wilton F, Welsh T, Welsh R, Christie W, Clabo S, Clune R, Cunningham N, Downs J, Dymond L, Falcone J, Harris S, Harvey P, Hill J, Hill L, Letizia D, Looney K, McGinley H, Mean A, Moore M, Norton R, Ortico V, Sabina S, Sole R, Stetz J, Ssali A, Stubblefield J, Taylor T, White S, Gatsonis C, Chen MH, Duan F, Lu B, Gareen IF, Adams A, Baum S, Blevins M, Fox P, Girardi V, Gorelick J, Hunt E, McMullen Q, Meganathan K, Rendas-Baum R, Sicks JD, Snyder B, Yeh M, Duggan M, Souza C, Cahill J, Brewer BK, O'Brien B, Ford MB, Rosenbaum JL, Devereux G, Fritz MS, Galbraith M, Harkins J, Keating KJ, Midkiff K, Peace S, Singh U, Zimmerman T, Clingan KL, Payte N, Price H, Caughman C, Chanapatna R, Florzyk M, Lee A, Morgan A, Ohan P, Yang J, Martinusen LE, McSwain J, Rosario R, Singh J, DeBaugh RA, Campleman S, Mesnard M, Ragard L, Lewis T, Roberts LM, Narayanaswami V, Ralda V, Lake W Jr, Riley T, Clapp JD, Austin J, Irons B, Xu F, Jones GC, Young M, Goodman A, Kibic C, Sheridan P, Kadish N, Moline D, Phillips R, Adkinson M, Creed D, DeCoste T, Gembala D, Hurst S, King E, Knowles J, McBride P, Pangburn P, Preston J, Stokes K, Tesch P, Wenmoth S, Galocy L, Mandley D, McBride P, Orvis G, Isaacs C, Gelmann EP, Freedman MT, Dial A, Clark L, Cohen L, Gerber J, Jamis-Dow C, Makariou E, Smith E, Garrett A, McGuire C, Neff S, Riley T, Cantrell S, Marsh G, Wray C, Yondonsambuu B, Giles U, Ford M, Brown V, Evangelista AL, Hammond T, Nickel J, Brangan M, Lee M, Lin C, Adkins EC, Armah G, Blue C, Cooke V, Gray N, Gustitis M, Hawkins L, Isaacs G, Kim M, King M, Kumbalasiri K, Laura R, McDaniel K, Mulugeta A, Riley L, Sorrell S, Thomas W, Woodard L, Kvale P, Johnson CC, Tammemagi M, Spizarny D, Zylak C, Flynn M, Jacobsen G, Sankey S, Schultz L, Albertsen K, Broski K, Kucera G, Poler K, Spoutz-Ryan C, Thomas D, Griesemer E, Kwit B, Fantuz P, McLellan B, Simmons D, Hafeez Y, Maddy N, Davis L, Estell R, Kozakowski S, Rowe J, Stanley M, Zhang X, Frebes ME, Paquette M, Tecmire M, Young L, Greene D, Hill C, Young K, Bellware K, Bohn K, Caird N, Fink H, Fiarman S, Houston M, Jolly A, Krzeczkowski C, Mack C, Murray L, Nanovski A, Rempinski D, Tumberlinson H, William D, Eldridge-Smith E, Graves V, Szabo N, Reding D, Hocking W, Manor W, Crump J, Kruger R, Greenlee R, Lappe K, Multerer D, Kriescher D, Vieth A, Wein S, Fuehrer D, Gjertson C, Krebsbach J, Kuhlka C, Luttrop K, Netzer J, Wegner J, Fischer V, Mathiesen-Viergutz K, Kofka K, Jablonsky N, Johnson B, Kitchner T, Mueller L, Rueth A, Wachholz S, Bohman K, Bruger M, Kramer KR, Kuenhold K, Mueller C, Mueller C, Multerer L, Zahradka S, Alkilidar J, Bhattacharjee N, Cangelosi C, Carlson R, Coppens A, Cousins M, Edelstein B, Gerndt K, Heffernon J, Hinke T, Hinson M, Hutchins L, Lieberman K, Manor W, Mulligan G, Omoba E, Risa T, Sheflin J, Swan T, Warner J, Williams A, Yokochi L, Balkin P, Adaniya R, Glanz K, Navin J, Shambaugh V, Tabrah F, Willcox B, Williams P, He Q, Jenkins V, Bow K, Tsukamoto J, Hyun S, Brown E, Morrow H, Stryker K, Shiratori H, Lau P, Au D, Francis W, Dolan L, Brooke J, Calulot M, Chun V, Rabanal K, Tani J, Lewis C, Morfit J, Brunst A, Turner L, Hino G, Chung A, Elbon-Copp C, Huynh W, Johnson M, Nakano E, Villaruz L, Fouad MN, Nath H, Bailey WC, Garver R, Wu X, Brawner D, Malcomb I, Morgan D, Sanders PC, Sandy A, Schwartz M, Singh S, Dransfield M, Higgins D, Moore A, Acemgil A, Blake T, Lee J, Quattlebaum S, Schach J, Martin T, Khatri R, Gendi W, Powell B, Johnson C, Sears J, Jordan S, Prayer V, Walker C, Johnson M, Thompson J, Crawford ED, Garg K, Bunn P Jr, Gamito E, Lynch D, Ogden S, Larke FJ, Pretzel S, Ramsay L, Vaughn C, Whiton C, Sammons D, Springhetti L, Tenorio S, Cadez N, Laster S, O'Donnell C, Hughes J, Livingston JG, Morrison G, Moss W, Mullennix M, Peters M, Sahin H, Slear M, Burck M, Hill C, Jewitt E, Pena R, Ordonez E, Sammons G, Hernandez J, Reyes A, Somoza A, Church TR, Oken M, Inampudi S, Day D, Edelman K, Fox T, Gaerte S, Myra-Bloom K, Plunkett M, Olson F, Rust P, Schneider L, Trombley B, Vahey T, Payne TJ, Bangerter A, David-Schlegel T, DesMarais D, Frederickson S, Geisser M, Portnov N, Silverman G, Stahan F, Vuong S, Watt G, Woodside J, Zirbes A, Breer S, Haselhuhn C, Longden C, Mueller C, Rice M, Warren D, Collins S, Levi S, Manual J, Matous L, Olsson P, Peterson S, Rogers C, Steele ML, Beckmann P, Jurjans L, Terrian S, Fraki S, Fronheiser M, Heinrichs L, Kirby D, Seivert J, Steinberg C, Watry M, Boyle K, Burnside A, Kiffmeyer R, Mosiman W, Bailey A, Byrnes P, Stark L, Weston M, Whistler D, Cordes J, Engelhard D, Becker J, Bradley P, Fisher J, McLaughlin H, Mendez AM, Miller D, Ronan R, Siga B, Weissfeld JL, Salerno MD, Schragin J, Strollo D, Warfel TE, Wolfe PW, Antico DA, Bee MT, Bittner DF, Corey WT, Hawkins RA, Herbick WT, Karwat MP, Leonard KJ, Petrochko CN, Pickerin SF, Smart PE, Walters PJ, Zehner JA, Schragin J, Augustine K, Misko S, Richel M, Riley MA, Warren L, McDonough K, Rozanok B, Schragin J, Helms J, Olson P, Uttecht S, Wirth M, Atkins R, Clement L, Gurtner D, Jones L, Buys SS, Mann H, Drosten R, Murray K, Nowers K, Jenkins P, Tripp D, Herron G, Van Stam E, Varner J, O'Toole K, Olson C, Omori D, Andersen A, Argyle N, Avrin J, Bacon J, Broschinsky M, Montalbo C, Nolan K, Randall A, Schleip K, Sheltra SJ, Tischner R, Toyn C, Turner K, Whittaker B, Wicklander E, Wolf J, Dalton C, Doi B, Childs J, Gren L, Randall A, Watson D, Varner J, Jones T, Neilson B, Ahumada H, Bourija H, Brown C, Ferris B, Hadfield L, Hansen K, Koford J, Kopesec S, Lloyd A, Lofthouse M, Matinkhah S, May V, Nichols S, Nieves A, Oviatt M, Richardson N, Rowley AL, Sandberg E, Scholl D, Seguin SL, Shea D, Smith S, Street PA, Walters M, Weiben R, Wilcox L, Zisumbo R, Beck TM, Waltz JS, Ball S, Burt TB, Daniel EN, DeMordaunt QA, Fisher MT, Fuchs MA, Hubler BE, Jennings CJ, Lane RH, Leymaster CE, Macey LC, Marx SV, Maxwell JR, Nelson BD, Fairbanks J, Wohlers B, Heinz J, Berreth K, Marshall R, Brekke J, Jones K, Barrow A, Bashford D, Clot B, Cook T, Dobson L, Hamilton-Foss A, Hanson W, Hyder JE, Lewis-Burke C, Mitchell S, Osterhout M, Patella K, Peterson P, Schornak-Curtis S, Sirianni L, Stoller L, Vigeant K, Whistle C, Yates J, Andriole G, Gierada DS, Anderson DC, Bhalla S, Bierhals AJ, Bronfman J, Glazer HS, Gutierrez FR, Geisse G, Kotner LM, Javidan-Nejad C, Rezai K, Sagel SS, Semenkovich JW, Siegel MJ, Sorrel D, Woodard PK, Engelhart D, Fletcher G, Haverman R, Campbell A, Gardner V, Gherardini D, Hoese L, Holdener R, Ledbetter L, Nieters P, Reiners C, Wade J, Wiseman M, Rueweler P, Williams R, Chi D, Budd T, Laster S, Webb J, Stolin C, Garrett K, Fleming E, Freesmeier E, Frye J, Graham D, Kaemmerer H, Nevilles J, Taylor K, Blaine J, Clark K, Gierada D, Koppel P, Maffitt D, Moore S, Molton J, Phillips S, Prior F, Wolfsberger M, Cosas A, Kim S, Kim M, Liang Y, Rueweler P, Williams R, Pilgram T, Haas A, Hartwell D, Roeshe D, Lowery A, Meese S, Naughton K, Yoffie R, Blaine J, Clark K, Koppel P, Maffit D, Moore S, Prior F, Phillips S, Smith K, Boiselle PM, Schwartzstein R, Lin PJ, Parritt TA, Grady EA, Damon L, Gard S, Griggs R, Potemkin A, Pollock MM, Mc Clellan S, Laron M, Owens T, Costello P, Jacobson FL, Judy PF, Hunsaker AR, Spirn PW, Trotman-Dickenson B, Christopoulos VE, Kazda IK, MacDougall RC, Walsh A, Nawfel RD, Berger R, Chan P, Delano M, Geiger J, Krinopol C, McGinnis AD, McLaughlin AM, Weatherby R, Abbott G, Tung G, Maineiro M, Camara L, Cobb C, Foley S, Morrell E, Romano D, Guillette D, Smith W, Amorosa JK, Aisner J, Backer M, Bramwitt M, de Caravalho V, Epstein R, Joyce P, Langenfeld JE, Reinert A, DeMarco K, Lutzker S, Musanti R, Shiff S, Wolfsohn T, Hudak C, Hugill A, Furlong M, Weslowsky E, Carmen S, Foster DL, Hansen K, Pennetta B, White LV, Tokarz R, Trotta M, Birofka A, Black WC, Kasales CJ, Lewis PJ, Weaver JB, Lenz SB, Barrett AC, Dauphinais R, Heinz JR, Siemionko MK, Taplin A, Wasson LS, DeAlmeida L, Longacre S, Meagher K, Moser CM, Lawlor JK 3rd, O'Quinn C, Black NE, Bradley HL, Bronson JK, Cosgrove T, Haron MK, King D, Mazuerk PM, O'Donnell NF, Pluta DJ, Sackett TJ, Turgeon GD, Albano H, Bell C, Bergen J, Bizer G, Carmichael NM, Cimis C, Davis S, DeAngelis T, Fellows G, Fenton C, Ferola J, Gankiewicz N, Hastings D, Howell C, Johnson ME, Krisk M, Lancor H, Leary C, LeBlanc M, Leming A, Leming M, Mead D, Milacek M, Mood J, Nordstrom H, Palazzolo C, Pierce J, Remitz RP, Rider J, Robbins KA, Sleasman B, Spaulding J, Vashel C, Welch A, White L, Whitty M, Vydareny KH, Williams AM, Karellas A, Grayson L, McCalister-Cross C, Mesquita S, Nguyen A, Myers LN, Deaton E, Falk R, Maxfield S, Thomas K, Brenzel L, Allen P, Brooks D, Chadwell C, Couch E, Devore A, Flores R, Francis M, Landes S, Mattingly J, Oechsli M, Pitino B, Sams S, Soukhanova O, Bland P, Bube S, Hoffa T, McElsain B, Johnson D, Francow C, Johnson S, Senn P, Fishman EK, Horton KM, Lawler LP, Bradford L, Christensen G, Bishop J, Motley L, Robertson D, Stewart R, Guzman C, Blake HB, Bradford H, Bradford J, Burner J, Kasecamp J, Kaufmann JB, Kimball D, Lewis Z, Moesinger S, Walsh S, Taylor K, Yung R, Zeng M, Gambill G, Merrill S, Mahesh M, McComb B, Johnson EA, Jolles HI, Kuzo RS, Morin RL, Abaya R, Chewar D, Shwarts P, Allen S, Manning S, Adams M, Awan Z, Beagle L, Cape D, Zeiger T, Amendolare L, Bahr N, Belyea M, Berg T, Burkhard M, Cottrell L, DeAngelis K, Dvorak M, Gay LH, Hatton K, Jacoby S, Kennedy V, Krach K, Laughren M, Lavergne C, Lawrence M, Lynch J, McDonald A, Mestas F, Moody J, O'Brien C, Pitts J, Polding B, Richardson L, Robinson K, Warren A, Washburn H, Wilson E, Zagarra L, Batton KM, Chellini D, DeWitt K, Fleming DR, Newton-Foster C, Krach K, MacDonald R, O'Brien C, Ott J, Peterson J, Sallas M, Teepe M, Thomas R, Torrence K, Zagarra L, Hildestad J, Swensen SJ, Hartman TE, Jett JR, McCollough CH, Midthun DE, Andrist BR, Hanson NE, Sathre CL, Schroeder LD, Sheeran JR, Walters LC, Andrist CL, Bungum AO, Bornhorst CL, Deno DM, Krpata TS, Lambrecht AM, McKey CM, Prudoehl DK, Richter HR, Ravenel J, Costello P, Brisendine A, Adrales-Bentz T, Arnold K, Benjamin B, Dodd A, Keller J, Saunders T, Spicker P, Shannon S, Bailey L, Comer H, Espiritu J, Helwi S, Mack-Pipkin B, Clark R, Coppage L, Hazelton T, Tockman M, Evans B, Wadhwa N, Baptiste N, Eysmans C, Vera-Gonzalez N, Hamm L, Harjani V, Sear A, Blackwell S, Fernandez A, Williams E, Coleman KA, Afiat J, Kirchoff L, Bowman R, Brothers C, Cohen B, Fields N, Guzman R, Monje C, Sterling W, Thorpe L, White K, Williams B, Hart EM, Nekervis E, Franco A, Glick I, Grigolo M, Harts Y, Migo A, Rockwell KP, Stein A, Weyls R, Berns E, Biringer MT, Del Pino A, Dubbs P, Fehrmann GM, Goodwin AL, Granger L, Haglage J, Hirschy J, King M, Kristopher JW, Mac NM, Mahoney G, Markarian A, Ramirez M, Taylor M, West KM, Sullivan MA, Matthews CC, Jones J, Cole A, Dow P, Fearon J, Fodera B, Ginther B, McCall RL, Williams S, Young S, Juul C, LaFleur A, Lohmann K, Pineda L, Schmidt A, Wright S, Greenup S, McNulty K, Pawlak S, Porter H, Lanning T, Loria D, Barr RG, Gemmel D, Cook A 2nd, Hallsky JA, Boulos A, Dalal P, Dickstein B, DuChateau A, Engartner C, Evans DM, Evans J, Evans K, Gemmel M, Hallsky S, Hoffman P, Hritz C, Kerchum L, Kolich M, Kolich M, Kolich M, Kumar N, Lobaugh J, Love C, Love D, Love M, Marchese M, Nelson D, Petkus C, Petruzzi M, Raver C, Schuler E, Schuler P, Schultz D, Kobistek R, Jackson J, Ziegler J, Fleischer J, Welch LL, Acerra M, Brittain B, Conklin L, Cyphert C, Delfosse B, Franceshelli L, Fuller J, Garland D, Gocala PJ, Grunenwald M, Kowalik D, Kurjan SL, Lavernick P, Maderitz J, Metz R, Quinn R, Semansky M, Smith S, St Claire A, Taybus P, Wisler D, Zubena K, Goldin JG, Aberle DR, Duda C, Kay P, Trapnell P, Vlachou M, Cagnon C, McNitt-Gray M, Bigby BB, Gallego A, Hamm G, Spivak J, Pollard M, Brown E, Campa O, Carter B, Clark S, Flores M, Ho J, Lee T, Lewis B, McMahon J, Momongan L, Ngo J, Perryman A, Rivas N, Romo C, Sookpisal K, Stone L, Voight B, Williams C, Adams K, Do P, Engber K, Henry L, Khalili M, Morales S, O'Carroll C, Quijano J, Borgheian S, Inatomi R, Lorenzo A, Lorenzo D, Nyborg G, Salazar V, Woo M, Goodman E, Beck P, Beerman P, Jacobsen J, Voight K, Allman E, Chen S, Farkas C, Forter I, Marcus P, Matthews L, Phillips R, Silva-Gietzen J, Sturgeon E, Varner G, McLennan G, Mullen B, Stanford W, Hoffman E, Sprenger K, Chapman A, Crawford K, Marietta J, Kmetty L, Meier J, Pirotte P, Rathmell L, Hudson M, Sieren J, Kazerooni E, Cronin P, Gross B, Kelly A, Patel S, Pernicano P, Holloway L, Chalom G, Henricks E, Pool J, Shepherd D, Zapolski D, Goodsitt M, Hooks H, Torigian DA, Gefter W, Werner DL, Smith CE, Choi BK, Lee JK, Holland C, Matuza J, Nosker HC, Russell W, Cupp S, O'Shea M, Munden R, Cates M, Sanchez E, Aganon-Acheta M, Black M, Blalock D, Brown C, Cromwell H, Dunnington J, Erasmus J, Gladish G, Gupta S, Haynes MW, Hensley T, Iyer RB, Madewell J, Malbari T, Marom EM, Morice R, Rao S, Sabloff B, Scully NF, Tekchandani S, Truong M, Wicks D, Cody D, Geiser WR, Montague JL, Patel M, Robinson T, Worrell JA, Donnelly EF, Massion P, Thielke E, Bell AM, Pickens DR, Bowman WA, Herron T, Shone D, Chin B, Chiles C, Chen M, Harmon L, Hinshaw L, Nelson C, Biracree D, Boyles D, Burrough A, Davis A, Drake E, Frost E, Long A, Bowman E, Dyer S.

Author information

  • 1Center for Statistical Sciences, Brown University, Box G-S121, 121 S Main St, 7th Floor, Providence, RI 02912, USA.

Abstract

The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) is a randomized multicenter study comparing low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) with chest radiography in the screening of older current and former heavy smokers for early detection of lung cancer, which is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Five-year survival rates approach 70% with surgical resection of stage IA disease; however, more than 75% of individuals have incurable locally advanced or metastatic disease, the latter having a 5-year survival of less than 5%. It is plausible that treatment should be more effective and the likelihood of death decreased if asymptomatic lung cancer is detected through screening early enough in its preclinical phase. For these reasons, there is intense interest and intuitive appeal in lung cancer screening with low-dose CT. The use of survival as the determinant of screening effectiveness is, however, confounded by the well-described biases of lead time, length, and overdiagnosis. Despite previous attempts, no test has been shown to reduce lung cancer mortality, an endpoint that circumvents screening biases and provides a definitive measure of benefit when assessed in a randomized controlled trial that enables comparison of mortality rates between screened individuals and a control group that does not undergo the screening intervention of interest. The NLST is such a trial. The rationale for and design of the NLST are presented.

© RSNA, 2010

PMID:
21045183
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3009383
Free PMC Article

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