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Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011 Nov 15;81(4):1160-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2010.09.013. Epub 2010 Oct 29.

Margin evaluation in the presence of deformation, rotation, and translation in prostate and entire seminal vesicle irradiation with daily marker-based setup corrections.

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  • 1Division of Medical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.



To develop a method for margin evaluation accounting for all measured displacements during treatment of prostate cancer.


For 21 patients treated with stereographic targeting marker-based online translation corrections, dose distributions with varying margins and gradients were created. Sets of possible cumulative delivered dose distributions were simulated by moving voxels and accumulating dose per voxel. Voxel motion was simulated consistent with measured distributions of systematic and random displacements due to stereographic targeting inaccuracies, deformation, rotation, and intrafraction motion. The method of simulation maintained measured correlation of voxel motions due to organ deformation.


For the clinical target volume including prostate and seminal vesicles (SV), the probability that some part receives <95% of the prescribed dose, the changes in minimum dose, and volume receiving 95% of prescription dose compared with planning were 80.5% ± 19.2%, 9.0 ± 6.8 Gy, and 3.0% ± 3.7%, respectively, for the smallest studied margins (3 mm prostate, 5 mm SV) and steepest dose gradients. Corresponding values for largest margins (5 mm prostate, 8 mm SV) with a clinical intensity-modulated radiotherapy dose distribution were 46.5% ± 34.7%, 6.7 ± 5.8 Gy, and 1.6% ± 2.3%. For prostate-only clinical target volume, the values were 51.8% ± 17.7%, 3.3 ± 1.6 Gy, and 0.6% ± 0.5% with the smallest margins and 5.2% ± 7.4%, 1.8 ± 0.9 Gy, and 0.1% ± 0.1% for the largest margins. Addition of three-dimensional rotation corrections only improved these values slightly. All rectal planning constraints were met in the actual reconstructed doses for all studied margins.


We developed a system for margin validation in the presence of deformations. In our population, a 5-mm margin provided sufficient dosimetric coverage for the prostate. In contrast, an 8-mm SV margin was still insufficient owing to deformations. Addition of three-dimensional rotation corrections was of minor influence.

Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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