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Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2011 Feb;45(1):60-7. doi: 10.3109/00365599.2010.526141. Epub 2010 Nov 1.

Diagnostic biomarkers of prostate cancer.

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  • 1Department of Oncology and Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Diagnostic tissue biomarkers for prostate cancer (PC) include basal cell markers and α-methylacyl-coenzyme A-racemase (AMACR), often used in combination. Their sensitivity and specificity are not perfect and there is a need for additional diagnostic biomarkers for PC in cases that are difficult to diagnose on routine stained sections.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

This study investigated the diagnostic accuracy of three novel tissue biomarkers for PC found through a search in the Human Protein Atlas database ( www.proteinatlas.com ): somatic cytochrome c (CYCS), intestinal cell kinase (ICK) and inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB kinase subunit beta (IKBKB), and compared the results with AMACR. A tissue microarray was constructed from 40 consecutive radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens including benign prostatic tissue, atrophy, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) and PC. Immunoreactivity was scored based on staining intensity and extent. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on malignant and benign frozen tissue samples from 32 RP specimens.

RESULTS:

All four biomarkers showed a stronger expression in PC and HGPIN than in benign tissue (p < 0.001). The highest diagnostic accuracy for PC was achieved with ICK and AMACR at 97%. The area under the curve for CYCS, ICK, IKBKB and AMACR was 0.859, 0.997, 0.865 and 0.983, respectively. The presence of mRNA transcripts of the genes was confirmed by real-time PCR in benign and malignant prostatic tissue.

CONCLUSIONS:

AMACR is an accurate diagnostic tissue marker for PC. However, in some PCs AMACR is false negative and a panel of CYCS, ICK and IKBKB may serve as ancillary diagnostic tool.

PMID:
21034352
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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