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J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Nov 24;58(22):11768-74. doi: 10.1021/jf102046b. Epub 2010 Oct 25.

Chemical profiling with modeling differentiates wild and farm-raised salmon.

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  • 1Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.


Classifications of fish production methods, wild or farm-raised salmon, by elemental profiles or C and N stable isotope ratios combined with various modeling approaches were determined. Elemental analysis (As, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sr, Ti, and Zn) of wild and farm-raised salmon samples was performed using an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Isotopic and compositional analyses of carbon and nitrogen were performed using mass spectrometry as an alternative fingerprinting technique. Each salmon (king salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ; coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch ; Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar ) was analyzed from two food production practices, wild and farm raised. Principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) were used for data exploration and visualization. Five classification modeling approaches were investigated: linear discriminate function, quadratic discriminant function, neural network, probabilistic neural network, and neural network bagging. Methods for evaluating model reliability included four strategies: resubstitution, cross-validation, and two very different test set scenarios. Generally speaking, the models performed well, with the percentage of samples classified correctly depending on the particular choice of model and evaluation method used.

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