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Chronobiol Int. 2010 Oct;27(9-10):1673-96. doi: 10.3109/07420528.2010.514631.

Circadian profiles in the embryonic chick heart: L-type voltage-gated calcium channels and signaling pathways.

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  • 1Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.

Abstract

Circadian clocks exist in the heart tissue and modulate multiple physiological events, from cardiac metabolism to contractile function and expression of circadian oscillator and metabolic-related genes. Ample evidence has demonstrated that there are endogenous circadian oscillators in adult mammalian cardiomyocytes. However, mammalian embryos cannot be entrained independently to light-dark (LD) cycles in vivo without any maternal influence, but circadian genes are well expressed and able to oscillate in embryonic stages. The authors took advantage of using chick embryos that are independent of maternal influences to investigate whether embryonic hearts could be entrained under LD cycles in ovo. The authors found circadian regulation of L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (L-VGCCs), the ion channels responsible for the production of cardiac muscle contraction in embryonic chick hearts. The mRNA levels and protein expression of VGCCα1C and VGCCα1D are under circadian control, and the average L-VGCC current density is significantly larger when cardiomyocytes are recorded during the night than day. The phosphorylation states of several kinases involved in insulin signaling and cardiac metabolism, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk), stress-activated protein kinase (p38), protein kinase B (Akt), and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), are also under circadian control. Both Erk and p38 have been implicated in regulating cardiac contractility and in the development of various pathological states, such as cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Even though both Erk and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathways participate in complex cellular processes regarding physiological or pathological states of cardiomyocytes, the circadian oscillators in the heart regulate these pathways independently, and both pathways contribute to the circadian regulation of L-VGCCs.

PMID:
20969517
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3155203
Free PMC Article
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